LIVE AND LET LIVE: A CASE FOR THE SANCTITY OF HUMAN LIFE IN NIGERIA

Date Created: 2018-08-30 06:15:40

 

               Live and Let Live: A Case for the Sanctity of Human Life in Nigeria

                              Rev. Fr. Peter Oluseyi Adeyemi, PhD (Ife).       

“To defend and promote life, to show reverence and love for it, is a task which God entrusts to every man…” St. Pope John Paul II (EV. no 42).

INTRODUCTION:

I am highly delighted for the privilege to deliver the Annual Lecture of NADRE Conference for the Year 2018. May I warmly welcome all the Directors of Religious Education and other dignitaries from all over the country to Akure the capital of Sunshine State. I wish you a fruitful Conference and refreshing time in Ibadan Ecclesiastical Province. The selected theme for the Year is : “Live and Let Live: A case for the sanctity of human life in Nigeria.”  There are two broad perspectives from which this paper will discuss the topic, first it will rely on Catholic Moral Tradition on the issue of Human Life. Second, it will offer a comprehensive exposition of the various ways in which human life is being abused in Nigeria. Solutions with regards to how the sanctity of human life can be better protected will be proffered and conclusion.

                    LIVE AND LET LIVE: A METAPHOR FOR NIGERIANS       

“Live and let live”: is a metaphor expressing the sadness, concerns, anger and frustration of reasonable Nigerians with regards to the precarious state of human life in the country presently.       Nigeria  is a country where Boko Haram kill innocent people continuously  with little deterrence, despite the one billion dollars set aside by the Federal Government to fight the same Lilliputians recently. Fulani herdsmen with their murderous activities embark on mass murder every now and then, while security agencies look the other way or are  helpless, as if goats are being slaughtered and not human beings. Armed robbers kill innocent people regularly.

     Nigerians are dying in kidnapers’ and cultists’ dens daily, ritual killers try to outperform other killers,  accidental discharge from security forces protecting the people or  even outright murder of the citizens by armed security men are common, we recall here the massacres of Nigerians in Odi and Zaki Biam in the past. There is frequent loss of lives on our un-motorable roads across the country, unstrapped articulated vehicles killing scores of people periodically when containers fall on smaller vehicles , abortion, and more recently frequent reported cases of suicide either by hanging or jumping into the Lagoon or by poisoning. Our tales of woes and unfortunate catalogue of the debasement of human life in Nigeria are both frightening and saddening.  According to Ojakaminor  Efeturi ours is “a society that places zero value on human life,” a classic case of “suffering and smiling,” living in sorrow tears and blood.

      It is against the above situation we can best understand and commend the foresight of  NADRE Conference for chosen the theme to call attention to the wanton loss of lives in Nigeria at this point in time. As a matter of fact the year 2017 was bloody, the bloodletting did not even respect the Holy Season of Christmas, in Nindem, Godogodo chiefdom in Jemaa Local Government Area of Kaduna State four Christians observing Christmas carols in their church were killed in cold blood, while eight others sustained life threatening injuries.   As the year was about to end, a major feature of the year reported in the Punch Newspaper on 30th December, 2017, was about unresolved murder cases, writing under the headline: “2017: Badoo, Osun perm sec’s killings top unresolved murders’ list,” Kunle Falayi painstakingly enumerated cases of murders of Nigerians across the length and breadth of the nation, with the sad finding that “security agencies do not make a headway in some of the cases.”

         One would naturally pray and wish that the bloodletting would go away with the year 2017, but not so, less than 48 hours into the New Year 2018  Nigerians were confronted with the   news that: “Bloodshed, Violence usher in new year in Rivers, Kaduna, Kwara” cf. (Punch Newspaper January 2018). In Rivers State January 1st 2018, 14 people were killed,  in Kaduna a traditional ruler and his wife were murdered, while in Kwara  Christians were attacked and St. Joseph Catholic Church was vandalized. January 3rd came with another blood chilling news that about fifty people were murdered overnight by suspected Fulani herdsmen in  Gaambe- Tiev, Ayilamo and Turan villages in Logo Local Government Area of Benue State,  on the new year day as they were returning from services in their churches. On Monday February 19th 2018, 110 school girls were abducted by suspected Boko Haram terrorists in Dapchi, Yobe State, another sad commentary on the value Nigeria society places on the sanctity of human life. From the foregoing, the theme chosen for the year 2018 is not only relevant but it is of national importance and significance.

       What is happening in Nigeria of our time with regards to the value placed on human life is against the will of God, and the Holy Catholic Church in her teaching condemns such in its entirety and those who have the responsibility to safe guard life but are indifferent or incapable  are culpable. Enough of the empty statements from security chiefs that they are “on top of the situation,” they have  been overwhelmed and are not  even on ground, they are simply below the surface of our security challenges in Nigeria.             

  Sanctity of human life defined

 The term “sanctity of human life”  is a term that has in the recent decades become a topical issue  in the religious, moral and political debates concerning a wide range of bio-ethical issues such as, abortion, the use of contraceptives, cloning, embryo research, genetic engineering, euthanasia etc. Bio-ethics is the field of human knowledge that deals with sanctity of human life in a general way. “The term ‘bio-ethics’ refers to the application of general moral principles and rules to ethical issues pertaining to human life-including health care, therapeutic practice in medicine, psychology, and to medical and biological research.” (Bohr,1999, p.279).

      Gushee (2006) propounds a definition of the “sanctity of human life” that is both comprehensive and all encompassing thus:

The concept of the sanctity of the human life is the belief that  all human beings at any and every stage of life, in any and every state of consciousness or self-awareness, of any race, colour, ethnicity, level of intelligence, religion, language, gender, character, behavior, physical ability/disability, potential, class, social status etc., of any and every particular quality of relationship to the viewing subject, are to be perceived as persons of equal and immensurable worth and of inviolable dignity (Gushee, 2006).   

Our discussion in this paper will not focus on all the identified dimensions of the debates on pro-life issues involved in the sanctity of human life, but on the moral evaluation of the areas relevant to our milieu in Nigeria which consist of incessant loss of lives through willful murders, abortion, herdsmen menace, suicide and kidnapping etc.  

Biblical  foundations  of  sanctity of human life     

       The teaching on the sanctity of human life is deeply rooted in the divine will of God concerning human life. At creation God created man in his image and likeness and breathe the breath of life into man, cf. Gen. 1: 26-28. The Catechism of the Catholic Church (2258) states that, “Human life is sacred because from its beginning it involves the creative action of God and it remains forever in a special relationship with the creator who is its sole end.” According to St. Pope John Paul II in his Encyclical Letter, “Evangelium Vitae” (no 39): “Man’s life comes from God; it is gift, his image and imprint, a sharing in his breath of life. God therefore is the sole Lord of this life: man cannot do with it as he wills. God himself makes this clear to Noah after the Flood: “For your own lifeblood too, I will demand an account for human life cf. (Gn. 9: 5).”

       Human life is inviolable because human life and death are both in the hands of  God, cf.  Job 12: 10. God gives life and he only can revoke it at his will (1 Sam. 2:6). The injunction cited from the book of Samuel has been affirmed in (Deut. 32:39), God declares in the passage: “it is I who bring both death and life.” God will therefore hold accountable anyone who destroys human life regardless of whatever stage the life is taken.

      The sacred scriptures leave no one in doubt that any harm to human life is a violation of the divine commandment: “You shall not kill” cf. Ex. 20: 13; Deut. 5: 17. God almighty himself is the defender of innocent human life cf. Is. 41:14; Jer. 50:34; Ps. 19:14. God does not take delight in the death of the living cf. Wisdom1: 13.

        In the New Testament the position on the sanctity of human life is consistent with the Old Testament doctrine of inviolability. Responding to the man who asked Jesus what he must do to enter eternal life, Christ reminded him about the commandments and specifically mentioned the sanctity of human life : “You shall not kill” (Mt. 19:16 - 18) as the first. He even raised the bar higher in another Gospel passage protecting human life from any grievous harm, he says in ( Matt. 5: 21-22): “You have heard that it was said to the men of old, You shall not kill; and whoever kills shall be liable to judgment.’ But I say to you that everyone who is angry with his brother shall be liable to judgment.” By his actions, words and parables Christ emphasised his authoritative teaching on the sanctity of human life.       

       St. Pope John Paul II in his Encyclical Letter: Evangelium Vitae- The Gospel of Life, declares that only Satan takes delight in the death of the living (no 53). As  a matter of fact death came into the world through the envy of Satan cf. Wisdom 2: 24, Christ actually described Satan as a murderer from the beginning cf. John 8: 44. Anyone who does not uphold the sanctity of human life is therefore satanic, sinful and subject to divine retribution cf. 1 John 3:15.

      Without equivocation the following points constitute Catholic stand on the sanctity of human life without apology to anybody, because they are choices rooted in the divine commandment of God and natural law. (1). No to willful murder. (2) No to abortion. (3)  No to Euthanasia. (4)  No to capital punishment. (5) No to the use of contraception. (6)  No to suicide.  (7) No to cloning, stem cell and invitro fertilization research using human foetus. (8) No to Homosexuality and Lesbianism and other sexual deviations etc.

      Premised on the doctrine of imago dei Genesis 1: 26 - 27, the sanctity of human life has an inherently sacred attribute and should be protected and respected at all times, while God gave man authority to kill and eat other species of life, God in his divine providence forbade the killing of human beings with death imposed as the penalty for the murder of any human being cf. Gen.9: 6. Unfortunately in Nigeria of our time human life has no value, even though the constitution of the country makes provision for the protection of the life of everybody, death from different avoidable causes is a common feature in the country. This I will explain with practical examples immediately.

1. Willful murder:

Willful murder is the deliberate killing of another person and it is rampart in Nigeria of today. People kill in different ways and circumstances, people have been willfully killed in the Churches, mosques, motor parks, schools, on the highway, in their homes, uncompleted buildings, offices, on the farm and even in the full view of everyone during funeral. In March 2017, a woman and her three children were killed in an uncompleted building at Agbowa, Ikorodu in Lagos State.  In Edo State Pastor Godwin Emmanuel was shot dead along Oko central road in Benin city, Edo State. In July Bosede Akinlalu was killed on her father’s farm in Ode-Aye, Okitipupa, Ondo State . In Akwa-Ibom  a school vice principal - Mr. Aniekeme Essien of Ukanafun LGA was shot dead in front of the students in the school compound. A Permanent Secretary from Osun State was murdered along Okene-Abuja Road, in Delta State Mrs Anetorufa Mokor and her son were killed while fishing in the Egolegbene creeks of Burutu LGA. Plateau State was not left out, Mr. Gwom and two others were killed in October at Wereh Village of Barinkin Ladi LGA. Adamawa State had its own tale of sorrow when six police men were killed in December 2017 by suspected Fulani herdsmen. In Bayelsa, Mr. Ayekeme Masa,  a former commissioner in the state was killed in front of his wife in Yenogoa. In November Mr. Abuldumumini Yakubu was killed in his house while performing ablution for prayer in Okene, Kogi State. Dupe Idahor was killed in front of sympathizers during the funeral of his mother in Benin, in Ogun State Mr. Mufutau Akinyemi was killed on a farmland at Ado-Odo farm settlement. This is certainly a tip of the iceberg considering the number of people that must have been murdered without the incident making headline. There is no justification what so ever for willful murder  in the sight of God and under the civil law, but it happens in Nigeria frequently and everybody moves on unconcerned. Willful murder of the innocents has become a normal feature of our national psyche, and it is gravely immoral and sinful, what a shame!

2. Murderous Fulani Herdsmen   

Anytime we hear news about Fulani herdsmen in Nigeria, their regular trade mark has always been: “Sorrow, tears and blood,” to borrow the words of late Fela Anikulapo Kuti. They kill anyone in their way with little or no provocation, in order to ensure their cows graze. They have no respect for the fundamental laws of the land, they have killed policemen, soldiers and were so daring that they shot at a Nigeria Air Force jet on surveillance and peace intervention mission in December 2017.

      The number of Nigerians the herdsmen have murdered in Benue State, Nassarawa, Adamawa, Delta, Ondo, Enugu etc is mind boggling. Nigerians woke up to read the screaming headline in the Punch Newspaper of January 3rd 2018 that : ‘Herdsmen kill 20, burn houses in fresh Benue attacks.” As if to confirm their ubiquitous murderous presence all over the country, on  4th January 2018 in Ondo State Patience Salami was killed by herdsmen when they invaded a farmland at Arodoye community in Akure LGA. They uprooted cassava tubers planted by the farmers to feed their cows and about 200 acre farmlands were destroyed. The Fulani herdsmen and their cows are “sacred terrorists” in Nigeria, they are above the laws of the land, no one calls them to order, they are never arrested and prosecuted for crimes that bother on outright genocide. Their victims from the north, the East and the western parts of Nigeria, are always defense less and unprotected despite the myriads of security personnel being paid by tax payers in Nigeria. It is pertinent to point out that self-defence is a legitimate means of life preservation. The magisterium teaches that legitimate defense is a right and grave duty for someone responsible for another’s life, the common good of the family or the state cf. (EV, no 55).

3. Abortion:

Unconfirmed statistics claim that about 610, 000 to 760,000 abortions are carried out in Nigeria every year outside of the legal parameters, and about 3000 women die annually from unsafe abortions at the ratio of 25 abortions per 1000 women aged between 15 - 44 years old.  Abortion is the termination of a human life at any stage after conception. The church teaches that procured abortion is : “The deliberate and direct killing, by whatever means it is carried out, of a human being in the initial phase of his or her existence, extending from conception to birth ” The act is described as deplorable and “an unspeakable crime” (EV. no 58). The failure in Nigeria to protect the lives of defenseless and innocent babies in the womb is a national shame and it deserves immediate attention.

4. Euthanasia:

“Euthanasia in the strict sense is understood to be an action or omission which of itself and by intention causes death, with the purpose of eliminating all suffering” (EV. no 65).  This is also known as mercy killing, applied to an individual who is terminally ill, or under serious pain with no hope of survival. It may be done by direct inducement of death or withdrawal of critical medical support for the individual. The fact that somebody is terminally ill or has become an invalid does not make him/her less human. The fact that the one suffering desires it does not make it morally right, it is rightly called “false mercy” or “perversion of mercy.” The stand of the Church is: “euthanasia is a grave violation of the law of God, since it is the deliberate and morally unacceptable killing of human person”(EV. no 65). While this problem is not common in Nigeria, it does happen, only that it does not enjoy publicity like other crimes against human life.

4. Capital Punishment

The Church is not in support of capital punishment because human life is sacred even that of a condemned criminal. Capital punishment in form of execution by hanging is a constitutional provision in criminal law in Nigeria. The state should device some other means of punishing grave offences against the state and individuals. The Church’s stand is that death punishment must  be applied in a very limited way or be abolished all together, it is to be permitted in cases of absolute necessity in which it would be impossible to defend the society, and “such cases are very rare, if not practically non-existent” (EV. no, 56).

5. On contraception, the church condemns its use because most if not all are abortifacients. The effects of contraceptives are not really different as such from abortion. Scientific analysis shows that the pills either kill off a newly conceived baby (fertilized eggs) or prevent the conceived baby from being planted in the womb where it can get the required nourishment for survival. Another moral problem is that the use of contraceptives is targeted at sexual satisfaction of individuals rather than procreation. Every sexual act is expected to be open to the possibility of life. Doctors and nurses are also guilty of killing babies in the womb “when they place at the service of death skills which were acquired for promoting life” (EV. no, 59).Given the number of young girls and women who make use of contraceptives in Nigeria not mindful or ignorant of the true nature of the way they work, it deserves a mention as part of the issues on sanctity of human life.    

6. Suicide:                         

Suicide which hitherto was rare among Nigerians is gradually becoming a regular feature of the society. A number of persons have been caught jumping into the lagoon, many were  reported to have  hanged themselves, suicide bombers are not left out of the matter.  In Maiduguri a suicide bomber killed ten people in  Gamboru Ngala town on 3rd December  2017, in Calabar a woman jumped under a truck  brought by  the task force to curb street trading rather than losing her wares of #5,000.00. No one has the right to take his/her own life, since it is a gift from God. To agree with somebody about to commit suicide or to assist somebody to do that is considered an injustice that can never be excused. The harsh economic situation in the country and “I don’t care” attitudes of the political leaders have pushed many Nigerians to a state of delirium and psychosis. Philosophers such as Socrates, Aristotle and Immanuel Kant condemned suicide and rejected it as an option for whatever condition. It is also repudiated by Christian theology and Catholic moral teaching “commonly rejects every kind of suicide as a grave offence” (Peschke, 1994,p.301).    

7. Human  trafficking

 As a result of the abject poverty majority of Nigerians are experiencing, many young Nigerians are falling victims to human traffickers who promise them El-Dorado in Europe and America. Many of them make dangerous journeys through deserts to Libya to cross the Mediterranean Sea which had turned out to be the graves of many of them. As at December 2016 International office for Migrants claimed that within twelve months about 358, 156 hapless persons made the journey across the sea of which 22,000 of them were Nigerians. We are all witnesses to the number of such migrants who were repatriated home last year 2017. This is another avoidable way through which Nigeria has a nation has failed woefully to protect and uphold the sanctity of human life. 

The way forward

1. All of us from the leaders to the ordinary citizens of this country must accept that the protection of human life is a divine assignment and a moral choice that should not be treated with levity. Our perception and attitudes to human life and how people are treated must change for good. Bishop Emmanuel Badejo, of Catholic Diocese of Oyo in his book: Firm Faith and Right Reason (2017) posits that we must stop “the conspiracy of silence” and remove “the cancer of indifference,” in our attitudes to things in Nigeria. These two points are necessary for us to be able to protect the sanctity of human life in Nigeria of our time.

2. Existing legislation protecting the sanctity of human life should be given adequate attention and publicity. Moreover, public institutions such as the security outfits, courts, health institutions and others responsible for the protection of human life should be up and doing in protecting the sanctity of human life in the country. Anyone found to have failed in his/her duty should be punished as example to other incompetent officials of the state.

3. All murderous groups such as Fulani herdsmen and Boko Haram should be disarmed, arrested, prosecuted and punished for their crimes. I share the view of  Martha Minow that: “The ideal is equal dignity of all persons. Through retribution, the community corrects the wrong doer’s false message that the victim was less worthy or valuable than the wrongdoer; through retribution, the community reasserts the truth of the victim’s value by inflicting a publicly visible defeat on the wrong doer.” Unfortunately, that is lacking in Nigeria, wrong doers and killers roam the streets free. A situation in which the Fulani herdsmen are treated like untouchable group despite their criminal activities all over the country is unacceptable to law abiding citizens of Nigeria, who are at the receiving end of their gruesome killings.

4.  Government policies at all levels must be pro-people, adequate care of the  majority through prompt payment of  salaries, pensions, gratuities and provision of gainful employments  will put an end to suicide and human trafficking. We have enough resources to take care of all Nigerians but not enough to satisfy the greed of our political leaders.

5. Effective deterrence strategies and pre-emptive strikes must be put in place by the relevant public institutions to curb the avoidable loss of life Nigerians experience at the hands of Fulani herdsmen, kidnapers, cultists  and armed robbers.

6. Response to emergencies from people under attack from whatever danger should be improved upon. The attack on innocent people in Benue villages few days into the New Year was reported to have occurred from 9.00pm until 4.00am in the morning without any help from the security forces. The Governor of the State who is supposed to be the chief security officer even lamented that the security forces were informed of the impending attack but nothing  was done to protect the people. Nigeria indeed has the signs of a failed nation written on the wall for all to see.

 8. Self defence is a legitimate form of life preservation, since the security agents have failed over and over again to protect the defense less Nigerians, perhaps it is time for Government to begin a programme that will train every Nigerian  how to defend himself/herself and allow each one to possess means of protecting the self. It may sound harsh, but what do we do?  Nigerians are being slaughtered almost daily by armed criminals. Michael Walzer a war historian  and philosopher warns that, “there are historical moments when armed struggle is necessary for the sake of human freedom” (p.205), such actions are the inevitable products of oppression, and hatred, fear, and the lust for domination are psychological marks of the oppressed and the oppressor. We hope Nigerians will not be pushed to that level of breakdown of law and order.

 

9. Christians must take active part in partisan politics. Plato a Greek philosopher was credited with the statement that: “The punishment for wise people who refuse to participate in politics is that they will be ruled by fools.” His disciple Aristotle asserted that: “Man is a political animal,” meaning, man is by nature a political being. Whenever decision has to be taken, anytime resources are to be administered and human affairs are to be directed, politics is involved.  Christians are in the world but not of the world, but our religion does not ask us to close in on ourselves without engaging the world we live in creative and productive manner. Tom Minnery in his book: “Why you can’t stay silent: A mandate to shape our culture,” contends that : “There is no escaping the mixture of religion and politics, because nearly every law is the result of somebody’s judgment about what is good and bad.” If we hope to uphold  and defend the sanctity of human life, we cannot afford to abandon the political landscape to non-Christians, we must encourage majority of our lay faithful to seek elective offices which will place them in vantage positions to influence policies from within.  

Conclusion                                                                                

Live and let live is a root metaphor expressing the anguish of Nigerians about daily loss of human lives in whatever form. It is a clarion call to our political leaders that they should rise up to their responsibilities and that public institutions responsible for the protection of the sanctity of human life should be revitalised. It is to be noted that on account of the cheap value placed on the lives of the people, average Nigerians of today feel violated, wounded, defiled and emotionally traumatized. One is not really surprised even though I do not totally  agree with the submission of Femi Fanikayode a former Minister of Aviation in the country that, “whether we like it or not, ultimately this matter (killings of human beings) will be settled not just by prayers, politics, long essays and press statements but also with guns and bullets…If the State is either incapable or refuses to protect the Christian community in Nigeria we will be left with no choice but to defend ourselves and protect our own.” From our collective experiences, we Nigerians despite our high level of enlightenment and the complexity of our society ask for very little from our leaders who tend to take us for granted by taking all for themselves. It is time we started calling our leaders to account for their deeds and misdeeds with regards to the loss of human lives under their watch. Nigeria belongs to all of us, no ethnic group or religious group should turn itself to unrestrained killers of harmless citizens of the country. The protected killers of today, must take note that beneficiaries of injustice today will become its victims tomorrow. Our political leaders must stop their hypocritical “conspiracy of silence” and the followership must purge themselves of “the cancer of indifference” to the loss of human lives in the society, we must take collective responsibility to safeguard the sanctity of human life. Enough of bloodletting in Nigeria, live and let live please.      

Thank you for listening!!!  

Rev. Fr. Dr. Peter Oluseyi Adeyemi, is the Parish Priest of Sacred Heart, Catholic Church, Osogbo, Osun State. He formerly lectured Systematic Theology at Seminary of Ss. Peter and Paul, Bodija and was  acting Dean of Students.  

 

 

References

Affe, M. (2017). “A Calabar trader attempts suicide over consificated #5,000 goods. The Punch Newspaper Nigeria, 30th December, 2017.

Akasike, C., Nwogu S., &  Isenyo, G. (2018). “Bloodshed, violence usher in the New Year in Rivers, Kaduna, Kwara. The Punch Newspaper, 2 January 2018.

Akasike, C & Dada, P. (2018) “Herdsmen kill woman, destroy 200 acre farms in Ondo.” The Punch Newspaper, 5th January 2018.  

Badejo, E. (2017). Firm Faith and Right Reason. Osogbo: Atman Publishers Nigeria Limited.

Bohr, D. (1999). Revised Catholic Moral Tradition. Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division.

Falayi, K. (2017). “2017: Badoo, Osun Perm Sec’s Killings to unresolved murders’ list. The Punch Newspaper Nigeria, December, 30 2017.

Folarin, S., Charles, J., & Muhammed, U. (2018). ‘Herdsmen kill 20, burn houses in fresh Benue attacks.” The Punch Newspaper Nigeria, 3rd  January, 2018. 

Fanikayode, F (2016).  The trouble makers from the north (2). The Sun Newspaper Nigeria 31st August, 2016.

Gushee, D. P. (2006). The Sanctity of Human Life. Deerfiel Il. Trinity International University. The Center for Bio-ethics and Human Dignity.

Minow, M. (1998).  Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: Facing History after Genocide and Mass Violence. Boston: Beacon Press.

Ojakaminor, E. (undated). Nigeria’s Ghana Must Go Republic: Happenings. Iperu-Remo: Ambassador Publication.

Olaleye, A. (2017). Herdsmen shoot at NAF fighter jet in Adamawa. The Punch Newspaper. December 21, 2017.

Peschke, K. H. (1994). Christian Ethics: Moral Theology in The Light of Vatican II. Bangalore: Theological Publications in India.

Pope John, Paul II. (1995).  Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae: The Gospel of Life. Nairobi: Pauline Publications in Africa.

Walzer, M. (1977). Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations. New York: Perseus Books Group. 

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